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The Date on Which A Cash Dividend Turns into a Binding Legal Obligation

It is a common occurrence for corporations to declare dividends. Sometimes, it is because they have some extra cash on hand that they don’t have any immediate use for. Other times, this is because they have reached a point in their life-cycle that they no longer possess a lot of convenient growth opportunities, and therefore it makes more sense to allow them to hand out their earnings rather than reinvest their earnings into their routine operations. In any case, while dividends can be paid using a wide range of assets, cash is by far the most common choice. If you are unfamiliar, when a corporation declares a dividend, that produces a debit to retained earnings as well as a corresponding credit to a new liability called dividends payable. This is because dividends are paid out from the corporation’s retained earnings from its routine operations rather than various areas of their equity. Eventually, when the dividends are paid out, that will result in a debit to the dividends payable in addition to a corresponding credit to cash and funds equivalents. Dividends that are paid using other kinds of assets are taken into account in other ways. However, the overall course of events is much the same, which makes sense because dividends are dividends.

What Would be the Important Dates to Remember for any Cash Dividend?

Moving on, there are a number of important dates that interested individuals should remember for dividends that are paid out in cash.

Announcement Date

Generally speaking, corporations aren’t obligated to pay dividends on their common shares. It is common to see corporations paying regular dividends on preferred shares whether or not they are doing well or not. However, preferred shares are very different from common shares, so much in fact that they are sometimes seen as a hybrid of equity and liability. Similarly, you will find corporations that have paid out regular dividends on their own common shares for decades and decades, but they're not actually obligated to do so. Instead, they are locked in by the expectation that they will continue spending regular dividends on their common shares, which means that their shareholders are virtually guaranteed to panic should they ever fail to do so. Something that can have negative consequences for corporations to say the least.

In any case, that state of affairs changes on the announcement date. Like the name says, the announcement date is when the corporate management declares a dividend, which needs to be approved by the shareholders before being paid out. This is the date on which the dividend turns into a binding legal obligation, thus which makes it something that interested individuals should definitely keep in mind.

Ex-Dividend Date

The ex-dividend date is very important because it is the date on which dividend eligibility involves a conclusion. For instance, guess that a stock comes with an ex-dividend date of August 12. If a person owned the stock on the business day before August 12, they are eligible to receive the dividend that will be paid out on the stock. In comparison, if someone doesn’t buy the stock until either on August 12 or after August 12, they're out of luck when it comes to collecting the dividend. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this means the ex-dividend date can produce some notable changes in the stock’s share price since the value of the upcoming dividend is among the factors that determine said figure.

Record Date

Speaking which, the record date may be the cut-off date for determining which shareholders can and can’t get the dividend, which is important since it is very common for shares to switch hands from shareholder to shareholder. As a result, the record date has a very close relationship using the ex-dividend date, so much so that it is set one business day after the ex-dividend date. In more practical terms for would-be shareholders, which means that they need to own the stock one business day before the ex-dividend date and two business days before the record date when they want to collect.

Payment Date

As for the payment date, this is just what it sounds like, which is to say, the date which shareholders actually get the cash for that dividend sent to their accounts. Something that a lot of people anticipate to say the least.

How Do People Use This Information to Invest in Dividend Stocks?

These dates are very important for people who want to invest in dividend-paying stocks for excellent reason. However, they are much more important for some dividend investors than the others. For instance, a lot of dividend investors practice a buy and hold investment strategy. Basically, this means that they search for reliable and reputable stocks that pay out dividends on a regular basis. After which, they're buying shares in these stocks to enable them to earn some income while still benefiting from the stocks’ growth potential. On the whole, this isn’t the highest-risk, highest-reward investment strategy. However, it may be very well-suited for those who are looking for stability in more than one sense of the word.

However, there are also people who practice what is called the dividend capture, that is a much more active kind of investment strategy. Here, interested individuals are buying and holding dividend-paying stocks for very short periods of time, so much so that it isn’t uncommon to see them holding on to these stocks for just a single day’s time. Basically, the concept is that they hold the dividend-paying stock just for long enough to collect the dividend before selling it to eliminate their exposure to it. Theoretically, dividend capture shouldn’t work. In practice, well, suffice to say that the market isn’t quite as perfect as what theory says it ought to be, meaning that there is a fair number of people out there who earn a decent return by practicing it.

Naturally, which means that interested individuals can’t make any mistakes concerning the ex-dividend date of dividend-paying stocks. Otherwise, that could mean that they will be eating a loss in the process. Generally speaking, that shouldn’t be considered a huge problem because dividend capture is focused on volume for higher returns, and therefore each individual transaction becomes less essential in the grand scheme of things. However, such mistakes possess a unfortunate tendency of accumulated very fast, meaning that they are definitely to be avoided as much as possible.

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